Tag: Films and music

Expressions of Love

Expressions of Love

Love and music are inseparable twins. Love is expressed best through music. Likewise, one of music’s biggest sources of inspiration is love. Last Saturday, about 60 students of Indian classical music experienced the awesome combination of love and music at a programme organised by the city-based group called Music Circle.

Renowned classical singer Rajashree Pathak was accompanied by tabla maestro P Mukundraj Deo in her rendition of thumri, which is a rich form of classical music that is romantic and devotional in nature, and usually revolves around a girl’s love for Lord Krishna. Pathak, who is a disciple of the legendary queen of thumri Shobha Gurtu, filled the air with the sounds of love like only an accomplished singer like her can. The students benefited immensely as they got the opportunity to learn the finer nuances of thumri.

Thumri Programme by Music Circle

While on stage, Pathak narrated what she called one of her fondest memories on stage. She was playing tanpura at a concert organised by the Indian Music Group. The two performers that day were her guru Shobha Gurtu from Banaras Gharana and Nirmala Arun, mother of the actor Govinda, who was also a renowned thumri singer from Patiala Gharana. Their jugalbandi (duet) was accompanied by the tabla maestros Ustad Nizamuddin Khan and Ustad Zakir Hussain. “This event took place 25 years ago, but remains fresh in my memory. Even today I am spellbound by the reminiscence of that performance,” she said.

The 85-member strong Music Circle is run by senior students of Shri Ganesh Nritya Kala Mandir, where they learn performing arts like tabla, classical dance, or classical music. All programmes are managed by the member students, who organise one programme every three months or so. The group was formally inaugurated on 10 July 2005 at the hands of a veteran of Indian classical music, Lalaji Desai.

The idea behind Music Circle is to close the gap between the performing artists and the audience. In early days, the audience, often comprising students of music, interacted closely with the performers. But in these days of commercialisation of classical music, the artists perform on stage and have very little, if any, direct interaction with the audiences. “I felt that genuine lovers of the art should get an opportunity to closely observe, and learn from, performers who are talented but often unknown,” said Pt Mukundraj Deo, who is also the founder of the group. Deo is of the opinion that it is imperative for a student of any art to have a profound understanding of the art. “How can one render the highly expressive thumri unless you grasp its essence?” he asks.

Women of Culture

Talking about music, a group of women from Jai Ganaraj Society located in Ramchandra Nagar, Thane, were so disappointed with the remix and pop culture that has inundated our social and community gatherings that they decided to do something to preserve Indian culture.

Preserving Indian Culture

Instead of playing the routine remixed music at the annual social gathering that took place in their society, these women prepared and presented a cultural programme called “Maharashtrachi Lokdhara”, which showcased Maharashtra’s rich cultural tradition, its historical backgrounds, literature, music and art. The audience loved the programme and soon the word spread outside. In no time they began to get invitations to perform at other community events. Since then they have already given as many as 10 performances in Thane and Mulund.

The one-hour programme, which starts with Ganesh Vandana, depicts household activities of women in rural areas. Folk songs and folk dances like powada, mangla gaur, lavni, koli, dindi, and many more are staged.

The 12 women, most of who are aged more than 50 years, manage to find time to practise regularly in spite of their domestic chores or employment duties. That they don’t charge for their shows tells a lot about their dedication towards their cause of preserving Indian culture.

Gender Bender

Gender Bender

Nurturing any kind of gender bias is detrimental to the health of the society. On the other  hand, promoting gender equality in any sphere is a sign of an unbiased, forward-looking society. According to Kofi Annan, the seventh secretary-general of the United Nations and 2001 Nobel Peace Prize winner, "Gender equality is more than a goal in itself. It is a precondition for meeting the challenge of reducing poverty, promoting sustainable development and building good governance".

Last week Thane took yet another positive step in the direction of endorsing gender equality when city residents thronged the Gadkari Ranagaytan to attend a unique all-women’s musical orchestra. Organised by city based arts institution called "Onjal", it was first all-women orchestra to be organised in Maharshatra and the response of the audience attested to its success.

25 women from Thane participated in the orchestra that was based on memorable Marathi songs from yesteryears rendered by the two living legends of Indian Music, Lata Manageshkar and Asha Bhosle. Evergreen numbers such as "Kehva tari pahate", "Sanj ye gokuli" and many others were among the two dozen or so songs that the women performed to a packed auditorium which included celebrities such as Ramesh Deo and Ashok Hande. It was amazing to see a troupe comprising entirely of women – from the host and instrument players to singers and dancers – every one on the stage was a woman.
The script of the orchestra was carefully researched and before every song was performed, the host of the show (also a woman) revealed its history. While some songs were the results of accidents, others were so challenging that they took days and sometimes weeks to complete. There was also a one-act play by small girl called Bhairavi Goregaonkar.

It is said that behind every successful man is a woman. Seem like the opposite is also true – at least as far is this orchestra is concerned. So, although the stage was adorned entirely by women, the concept, direction, script and production was handled by men.   Mandar Tillu conceived and directed the show while Amish Kondra arranged the music. The famous Marathi scriptwriter Shirish Latkar penned the script while Balkrishna Hodekar was the executive producer. Asked why a show like this was organised, Devendra Goregaonkar, who is on the advisory committee of Onjal, said, "Usually in an orchestra, women only sing or dance. But there are women who play musical instruments and we wanted to give them a platform to demonstrate their skills. Playing the tunes of songs sung by legends like Lata and Asha requires a certain level of competency, which these women successfully demonstrated."

In his post-show speech, Ashok Hande, chief guest of the evening said, "Thane has always been the cultural hub of Maharashtra, and has given a lot to Marathi theatre. Such innovative shows can happen only in Thane." Ramesh Deo, the veteran actor who inaugurated the show, praised the all-woman troupe saying, "They have done well in a field dominated by men. My prediction is that this orchestra will go places, even across the seven seas." Such encouragement from prominent and respected individuals is sure to take the orchestra places – and with it, perhaps the reputation of Thane as a culturally rich society that respects women and men equally.

Rulers of the heart

Rulers of the heart

In the 1967 film, King of Hearts, a World War I soldier, separated from his battalion wanders into a small village, which is totally deserted, leave for inmates of a mental asylum. The villagers, fearing an attack by enemy forces, have fled, leaving behind the mentally handicapped patients, who were regarded as totally disposable, for even their wardens abandon them. Such an attitude is widespread in our society, where the marginalised section is often left to fend for itself. But thankfully several NGOs have taken upon themselves to attend to the needs of this oft-ignored fragment of our social order. Like city-based NGO Sevadham.

A few weeks ago, about 25 women inmates, accompanied by TMH staff that included medical professionals and social workers (all women) from Sevadham spent a fun day near the sea. The troop parked itself at a resort near Aqsa beach which is owned by the JJ Nursing Association and is a lent only to NGOs that serve the poor and the marginalised. For the inmates of TMH, who spend theirs days confined within the boundaries of TMH, this was a welcome break. "The objective of taking them for a picnic is to give these inmates a break from their monotonous lives. Besides, being near water has a therapeutic effect on them – it helps them release their tensions," a Sevadham volunteer revealed.

The shallow pond in the resort became their playground as the inmates participated in a number of sports and games that were played inside the pond. Later, the drenched women, who did not have spare clothes, dried themselves under the sun. There were other games too, like poking straws in the head and collecting scattered marbles. There was a dancing session, wherein the inmates let their hair loose literally. From 8 am to 4 pm, the women inmates had a ball of a time. When it was time to wind up the unwinding session, the inmates expressed their desire to want more. A unanimous question from the inmates was, "When’s our next picnic?"

Hearing about the wonderful time that the ladies had, the staff of TMH requested Sevadham to organise a similar trip for the male inmates too. So coming Tuesday, it’s the turn of the male inmates to enjoy, play games, splash water and dance merrily. The reason why medical staff accompanies volunteers is because these patients need to be attended to at all times, though the experience of volunteers suggests that such outings are usually trouble-free as inmates are so engrossed in having fun that they forget themselves in the process.

Sevadham regularly organizes picnics for the poor and marginalised sections of the society. Earlier it has earlier taken physically and mentally challenged students from city schools like Jidd and St John the Baptist School for special children as also tribal children from villages around in and around Thane.

In the aforementioned film "King of Hearts", the soldier leads the disoriented patients out of the asylum and into the abandoned village, where they establish a surprisingly balanced community – there is singing and dancing, laughter and love, the strong care for the weak, the haves share with the have-nots. Come to think of it, volunteers of NGOs like Sevadham are like soldiers – they are bringing equilibrium back into those whose lives have been rendered off-balance by fate and by the so-called oriented society. They are truly the kings and queens of hearts.

Not all Black

Not all Black

A few days ago, the principal of Jidd School for special children, Shyamashree Bhonsle, called this writer to relate her experience of watching the movie Black. So moved was she by the film’s depiction of a deaf-blind girl and her struggles that she fell short of words when praising the film. She said that as the principal and teacher of a school for special children, she found the movie particularly relevant. She also said that if she ever got an opportunity, she would strongly recommend the movie to parents of every physically or mentally challenged child because the film has many lessons for them. This discussion became the impetus of the free special screening of the movie at Cinewonder last Saturday.

Aastha Charitable Trust, Inner wheel club of Thane Hills and a few socially conscious residents got together and approached the management of Cinewonder Multiplex at Godbunder road requesting them to make available one of the enclosures for a free screening of the film. Cinewonder graciously agreed and last Saturday, about 250 parents of children suffering from mental or physical disabilities, and their teachers attended the special screening.

The film, which has beautifully portrayed the life of someone who lives in the world of silence and darkness, stirred most viewers into tears. Almost all parents who attended the screening felt that their, and the lives of their children, was reflected in the movie and admitted that the film touched a chord in their hearts. Many said that they were so caught up coping with the present that they had not considered many issues which may arise in time, which the film aptly illustrated. Some confessed at being harsh at times with their special children and vowed to be more considerate from now on. Judging by the reactions of viewers, Bhonsle’s objective was more than met.

Prior to the show was a small function, where Mayor Rajan Vichare presided as the chief guest. Also present at the show were N U Nayak, General Manager at the Helen Keller Institution for Deaf and Deaf Blind at New Mumbai and a few students including Zameer, the young man who was among those who taught Rani Mukherjee and Amitabh Bachchan the nuances of communicating using the sign language. When Vichare asked Zameer what his contribution to the film Black was, the latter, being deaf and blind, replied in sign language (translated by a teacher), "I taught Rani to speak in sign language. I taught her to type on a Braille typewriter. I also taught her to use the white cane that blind persons use."

Thanks to the show, our city might soon get a school for blind and deaf-blind because mayor Vichare, noting that our city lacked such a school, announced that he will set one up, with the help of the teachers and other residents. Hiral Kanakia from Cinewonder too pledged her support for any cause relating to the special children. The special screening was thus special in more way than one.

When the soul speaks…

When the soul speaks…

Sometimes, it takes a crisis to bring out the best in us. The Tsunami catastrophe has truly united Indians in a noble cause – all around the country, people have been doing their bit in helping the victims of the December 26 tragedy. The endeavours of large-hearted Thaneites too have been heartening. Ever since the Tsunami disaster struck, city residents have been doing their bit for the victims, in their own little ways. Some have adopted children rendered orphans by the killer waves. Others have donated large sums towards rehabilitation programmes in remote Tsunami-affected villages. Several events have been organised in the city in aid of the victims. One such event was organised on Sunday in The Golden Swan Club at the picturesque Yeoor Hills on the evening of Sunday February 06, 2005. The programme, called Namami, meaning salutation, was a musical concert, which brought together various performers from the world of music and dance on one stage.

Sanskruti, a city-based institute for music, had organised this concert in aid of Tsunami victims with the help of few other organisations. While all performers were kind enough to perform free, as many as 800 people attended the show allowing the organisers to collect about one lakh rupees as aid, which will be donated to rehabilitate a school in Chennai.

The show began will Vandana (a prayer item), by Krishnamurti, followed by several vocal, instrumental and dance items. There was an item called Taal Vaidya Kacheri, a rhythmic fusion of south Indian instruments with Mukund Raj Deo on Tabla. Then there was Tillana and Tarana, pure dance forms of Bharatnatyam and Kathak respectively, performed by Asha Sunil Kumar (who also organised the show on Sanskriti’s behalf), Manali Deo, Nivida and Swati. A vocal item called Trimurti was presented by three ladies, Manjushree and Uttara and Veena, who sang a composition together. The last item, called Namami, was a ballet that depicted the surge of cataclysmic Tsunami and the devastation it manifested, touching a chord in the audience, and bringing their compassionate feelings to surface.

Music, they say, is the universal language of the soul. Like Victor Hugo once said, "Music expresses that which cannot be said and on which it is impossible to be silent." No wonder the musical show was able to communicate so effectively with the audience.

A Musical Lesson

A Musical Lesson

There are orchestras, ensembles and musical shows. And there is Gagan Jhula – Ek Divas Kavita Gani – a musical show with a difference. When almost every musical showcases popular songs, from films or otherwise, this was a one courageous attempt to break the rules and go against popular belief. For one, all the songs were based on poems that would probably be known only to literary buffs. For another, few producers ready to back the idea because it lacked commercial attraction. But Abhijit Panse decided to go ahead in spite of the criticism. And his valour was rewarded as the culture-loving audiences of Thane welcomed the idea, appreciated the new concept and enjoyed the programme.

Such was the success of the show, which was held on December 12 at the Gadkari Rangayatan, that the auditorium was chock-a-block with people waiting outside to gain entry. The musical, composed by leading Marathi composer Kaushal Inamdar (of Char Divas Sasuche fame), presented songs based on verses, old and new. 22 new songs were created based on verses written by such greats like Sant Dnyaneshwar and Kusumajraj, to present day poets like Ashok Bagwe and Sandeep Khare. Singers like Ajit Parab, Hrishikesh Kanerkar, Hamsika, and Dr Neha Tejpal performed to a full house.

The show was organised in honour of a book release. The book titled “Ha Kumbha Amruta cha” is an autobiography of Baburao Sarnaik. What’s interesting is that due to a small mistake in announcement, most people turned up much earlier than the scheduled time of the show, but most stayed through the programme, including a one-hour break in which the book was released. “To stay for more than five hours for a Marathi show, which is not exactly very famous, was indeed great. I just did not expect the audience to react so encouragingly”, said Panse, who conceived and directed the show. In the past too, Panse created a unique musical drama called Vande Mataram, which received a lukewarm response from producers until it was performed. Then it became very successful. “I welcome youngsters to approach me with unique ideas and would be happy to provide a platform to them, if it’s possible for me to do so. I know how it feels like having ideas without backers,” adds Panse.

The great R. Buckminster Fuller, inventor, architect, engineer, mathematician, poet and cosmologist once said, “People should think things out fresh and not just accept conventional terms and the conventional way of doing things.” Panse followed this advice and look what he achieved. There’s a lesson in it for all of us to learn.

A story of courage

A story of courage

Faith, hope, courage, determination, optimism, kindness, love and many such qualities put together are at core of the human spirit. The now-famous Marathi film Shwaas is based on a true story of human spirit. Shwaas won the Swarna Kamal for the best feature film of 2003 at the 51st National Film Awards held at New Delhi last month. Child actor Ashwin Chitale, who plays little Parshuram afflicted with Retinoblastoma, a rare cancer of the eyes, won the award for best child performance.

What’s fascinating is that the making of the film itself reflects the triumph of the human spirit. This is what we concluded when we heard Arun Nalawade, the actor-producer of the film, spoke about the way he and his colleagues went about producing this film.

Nalawade was in the city for a felicitation programme organised by the Sarawati Mandir Trust’s pre-primary section in Naupada, which is celebrating it golden jubilee year. Incidentally, it was fifty years ago, that a Marathi Film titled Shyamchi Aai won the first National Award in best feature film category.

The felicitation programme was held at Malhar Cinema at 8.30 am of Sunday, September 12. Senior Trustee S D Ghatpande honoured Nalawade after which a special screening was organised for the school’s students. After the honours, Nalawade revealed the story behind the making of his best-seller which was produced by seven individuals on a cooperative basis. The script of the film is based on a six-month long research conducted by interviewing a leading eye surgeon from Pune, Dr Shailesh Puntambekar, from whose professional life the story was inspired. Making a song-less movie with a modest budget, and a plot sans the usual melodramatic hero-heroine fare, requires courage. Plus the movie was filmed in Marathi, which meant restricted audiences. In spite of this, the movie has done extremely well and has completed 100 days. The national award only proves the core message of the film: Never give up on life, no matter what.   Nalawade also spoke about the intricacies of working with a child actor, who had to portray the difficult character of Parshuram. "The hospital scenes, especially the overwhelming medical scanning equipment, would intimidate Ashwin and it required a lot of cajoling and encouragement to get him to do the scenes," said Nalawade.

Speaking about the idea of a special screening of his film for school students, Nalawade said he was touched: "This is the first time Shwaas is being screened for school students ever since it hit the theatres in March 2004." And he said it made a lot of sense too, because children were the real target audience for the film. The story highlights the predicament of a man who is faced with a situation where is beloved grandchild is about to lose his eyesight. He wants is grandchild to make the most of the time left to see the world in all its vibrant colours.

The bookings for the special screening for students opened on Friday morning and sold out within two hours. But happily, students who missed this opportunity can still watch it if they want. Going by the demand for the film, the school management has decided to hold two more special screening at discounted rates – one on September 26 and another on October 3. Rohini Rasal, principal of the pre-primary sections said, "A nine-year old came to book tickets with her grandfather. She said she would like to see the movie with him. Another student said she would love to see it again and again." In reaching out to the children’s hearts and touching a chord in them, Shwaas has proved true its own message – that human spirit always prevails.

Musical Expressions

Musical Expressions

The raison d’être of Indian Music is much more than merely entertainment. And Indian musicians are not just artists who sing a song, compose a tune or play an instrument. They are, in one sense, spiritual beings, who literally live their music. This was essentially the theme of the programme "Anubhuti" organised at the Gadkari Rangayatan on February 10 2004. The evening was dedicated to senior musician and critic Shrikrishna Dalvi who passed away last month. Dalvi’s contribution to the world of music known to all music lovers in Maharastra and the programme was a fitting tribute to him.

The auditorium was packed to capacity, an evidence of the popularity of the departed soul. The evening also saw well known Thaneites offer their tribute to Dalvi. Yogaacharya Anna Vyavahare, Violin player Dr M Rajam, Senior Tabla Player Pt. Bhai Gaitonde and Professor Ashok Chitnis – all spoke about Dalvi’s contribution to the realm of music.

Corporator Vilas Samant organised the programme together with well-known Tabla Player Mukundraj Deo who presented the programme. Deo said, "We called the programme Anubhuti because we wanted to demonstrate conceptual fusion that musicians experience throughout a lifelong of learning – it is a vision that emerges and can only be experienced. And Anubhuti implies lessons gained from experience."

The programme was like a lifecycle of the musician. 14 participants comprised of singers, instrument players and dancers who explained the stages of evolution of a musician via the medium of music.

They started with Om, which has thousands of meanings, one of them being Sadhana or practice. For a musician, Sadhan is Godlike and they long for it, not to perfect their art but because it is like meditation – they feel incomplete with it. Then they dealt with Vistaar or development of music – just like everything in nature, music develops through a typical pattern known only to a musician. Chaturang or the four basic components (Vocal, Instrumental, Dance and Rasa) of music is the next stage of evolution. Then comes Dhundi (intoxication), a stage when a musician gets completely immersed in his music oblivious to his surroundings. Anand (ultimate, inexplicable joy) is the final stage which then goes back to Om to complete the cycle.

The evening truly reflected the words of a Chinese Taoist Philosopher Lao Tzu who said: "Music in the soul is heard by the Universe."



Studies suggest that drawing is an important part of literacy development. Drawing can serve as a powerful means for developing children’s perception and thought. And when these children are given the appropriate environment, time and access to materials, it is not uncommon for them to spend hours on their drawings, expressing their thoughts, observations and imaginations as vividly as they can. Evidence of this was seen at an inter-school drawing competition held in the Thane city last month.

Organised by the Rotary Club of Thane Mid Town in association with Shiv Samarth Vidyalaya, the drawing competition saw over 200 students from 18 city schools participating. The winners were declared on Tuesday, November 18, 2003 at a function presided by renowned muralist Aarti Sanjeev

The participating students were divided into two main groups. The first group (class five to seven) were given themes like "Unity in Diversity," "Ganpati Decoration" and "Life in rainy season". Themes for second group, for class eight to ten, were more profound – "Bomb explosions in Mumbai," "Seven Wonders of the World" and "Cartoons depicting current affairs (a la R K Laxman)."

There were eight winners in all – three of each group and two consolation prizes. The winners were selected by a panel of judges headed by Vasanti Gokani, who teaches drawing at SES English School, Panch Pakhadi.

Architect Ulhas Pradhan who was also on the panel of judges said that the drawings were selected on the basis of many criteria. He said, "We looked for the human figures, which are rather difficult to draw. We also measured the depth of concept covered, the colour schemes used – but most importantly we tried to judge the visualising power of the child." Indeed, for imagine a child trying to illustrate the scene of a bomb blast and capturing the commotion after the explosion, in spite of not witnessing anything of the sort with his or her own eyes.

First come, First Served
Talk about enthusiasm among culture-crazy Maharashtrian people who will do anything to reserve a seat for the annual "Pandit Ram Marathe Sangeet Samaroh" show. This year, the plans opened on November 16 for the four-day show beginning on November 21. As usual, the booking windows of Gadkari Rangayatan, where the programme is to be held, had queues from the evening of November 15. The first person to arrive at the booking counter was Gunendra Phansalkar, a 65-year-man from Kalyan.

Many others soon appended the queue and spent the night at Rangayatan, waiting for the ticket sales to begin the next morning. Begin they did, only to stop three hours later, when the tickets were sold out.

Phasalkar will be honoured by chief guest Mohan Joshi – it has become customary for the organisers to felicitate the first purchaser of the ticket every year.

The Invincible Spirit

The Invincible Spirit

On January 03, 2003, the normally quite and peaceful Golden Swan Club at Yeoor had become a hub of cheers, laughter and ecstasy. About 400 mentally and physically challenged students from all the nine special schools in the Thane were attending the annual New Year celebration organised specially for them by the Rotary Club of Thane. The purpose of the event was to provide children with mental and physical disabilities opportunities for fun, social interaction, skill development and self confidence.

There is no feeling like the feeling you get from watching mentally and physically challenged boys and girls enjoying like normal kids. Most of them seemed to have forgotten that they have any kind of disability. The invincible spirit of these deprived children simply stirs the heart. Consider Pravina, a physically disabled child from Jidd School, who uses crutches to walk. Pravina was participating in the march-past held to honour the chief guest. She was moving very slowly and the entire troupe of children paced forward, leaving her way behind. Soon the salutation was over and the principal of her school Shyamshree Bhosle, asked her to leave the parade. But the child was not to be budged – she had decided that she too would salute like others – so she kept going on, slowly yet determinedly, until she finally gestured towards the chief guest.

Many physically and mentally challenged children also suffer from a weak constitution and as a result cannot tolerate excessive physical exertion. One such girl could not bear the morning heat and fainted. When she regained her consciousness, her teachers tried to persuade her to return home, but she stubborn refused. She stayed back, claiming that she was feeling much better and would not faint again.

The kids were lapping up all the attention they were getting, which they are normally deprived of. Popular TV stars Sudhir Pandey, Gufi Paintal, Yatin Karekar and Suhas Khandke, who had turned up to cheer and support the children, were unanimous in their opinions that it was a great event and that they would cherish the memories of the day. They said that their New Year could not have started off on a better note.

The organisers had arranged for lunch packets and gifts for all the children and while these were being distributed, one could easily tell the gratitude on the face of these otherwise deprived children. Many of these children couldn’t speak, yet they expressed their gratitude through their gestures. Their faces were glowing and they their movements suggested that they wanted to thank everyone who made the event possible.

The staffs of the various participating schools were pleased too. Ashwini Sule from Dilkhush, a pre-vocational/vocational school for MR children, said, "It was a great event. We look forward to such events as it gives our children an opportunity to enjoy". Bhosle from Jidd School praised the event too, "It is a great experience for our students. Rarely do they get to enjoy so freely and thoroughly. It was well organised." Sushma Mandlik from St. John’s felt the same way, while teachers from Kamalini Hearing Impaired School in Thane East said that their students were thrilled to be a part of the event.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, a German poet, novelist, playwright, and one of the greatest figures in Western literature once said, "If you treat an individual as he is, he will stay as he is, but if you treat him as if he were what he ought to be and could be, he will become what he ought to be and could be". Children who are physically or mentally challenged need, more than anything else, to be treated as normal individuals. It’s only then that they can gain the self respect that is so important to their self development. The event provided them a wonderful opportunity to be themselves – nobody was going to judge them or their weaknesses. From this perspective, it was certainly a noble event.